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The term "shaman" originally comes from Siberia and today refers to a wide variety of healing, ritual or religious specialists who serve as a kind of mediator to the spirit world. Depending on the ethnic group, this can be understood, for example, as a medicine man or a spirit conjurer. This term is defined very differently depending on the culture; therefore, shamanism as a collective term encompasses many different types of shamanic practices, such as the power animal journey.
“You are a shaman through the shamanic activity that you carry out for yourself and for others. Their experiences are real and essentially interchangeable between all shamanistic cultures. The shamanic method is the same: the human mind, heart and body are the same; only the cultures are different. ”Michael Harner
In the case of the Tungus, shaman refers to women and men who deliberately go into changed states of consciousness. Shamanism includes practices, initiation rites, visions, soul journeys and controlled trance. In their community, shamans are seen as "medicine men" who find contact with spiritual worlds in ecstatic journeys or integrate spirits into their "I". They are doctors, mystics, poets, naturalists, social workers and psychotherapists still undifferentiated in one person - also an early form of the philosopher, in that they put knowledge into context.
Shamanism originated from the ritual practice of hunter-gatherers and is therefore probably the oldest cultural technique of spiritual experience as well as medicine. Shamans are considered to be those who interpret the signs of nature, mediate between visible and invisible reality. Diseases such as missing prey have their origin in these cultures, which see themselves as part of nature as nature as animated, in violation of the rules of the (natural) spirits. The shaman balances these spirits and thus restores harmony.
Shamans as healers and spiritual guides
Shamans, the umbrella term for medicine men, healers, wise old people and spiritual leaders, create knowledge about the “other world” and bring this knowledge into the “world on this side”.
Christian conversion - even with fire and sword - and the European "science" that developed from this thinking despises shamanism as "superstition of primitives" to this day.
However, these teachers were and are the psychotherapists of their societies; Essentially shamanic techniques are used in dealing with trauma, Gestalt therapy, what is called visualization in psychology, and can be found in adult education courses on creative writing, creative painting, psychoactive role play, as well as dream analysis. Brainstorming, that is, allowing mental images, ideas and thoughts to take effect, is part of personnel management in any company that wants to be innovative; it is a shamanic practice.
Plato and Herodotus visited mystery temples, shamanic topoi can be found in the Germanic Odin as well as in Homer's Odyssey. The elements of the shamanic journey are recognizable in the archetype theory of C.G. Young, and also "So spoke Zarathustra" by Friedrich Nietzsche can be explained as the philosopher's return to his shamanic origins.
The shamanic journey
The shaman learns from spirits to fall into a trance, he flies with animal spirits into other spheres, from the sky to the underworld; there he leans to the bone, dies, is reassembled and enters his earthly community - born again and with the power to heal illnesses like to fight ghosts. He also hunts, helps in the camp and organizes the household. He does not see the spirit worlds as separate from the everyday world, but as the being behind things. That is why there is no abstract hereafter in shamanism that is fundamentally separate from this world.
Journey into the underworld
The journey into the underworld begins at a real or imagined entrance: The "traveler" concentrates on a mouse hole, a mountain gallery, a hollow tree, a spring, a cave or a pond. The journey into the upper world starts in a tree top, on a mountain top or in the smoke that draws from a fire.
In shamanic cultures, the rest of the people believe in the spirit worlds and see dreams as contact with spirits. The shaman, however, deliberately seeks out these states and classifies the experiences of others. Allies such as power animals or auxiliary spirits, which he finds in hidden reality, help him to do this.
Shamans are given “shamanic consciousness” tips on how to heal the sick, find missing objects or discover food resources. They communicate with the spirits of the deceased as well as with the spirits of the animals. They negotiate with them which animals they can hunt and what the ghosts can expect in return.
With the help of drums, dance, hallucinogenic substances, concentration, withdrawal from external stimuli, physical agony or fasting, a shaman finds himself in a state that is clearer than a dream. Incidentally, this condition can also occur spontaneously, for example when we briefly close our eyes during a break during a mountain hike, during long car journeys or at concerts.
A journey into the "underworld" begins with looking for an entrance into the "bottom", a hole in the ground, a crack in the mountain or a crack in the rock. The shaman concentrates on going into this opening. If this mental entry works, he sees something like a tunnel to get into some kind of cave. In this there is an underground landscape, enlivened by strange animals and plants, strange buildings - a world that is understandable, but still very different from the "middle world", the everyday world.
What seems absurd in everyday life is normal in the lower world: for example, animals can talk, otherwise small plants and mushrooms are bigger than a person. Animals change into other animals, people into animals and plants. Fairytale-like implementations of this journey into the lower world are Aladdin's magic lamp, in which Aladdin finds treasures inside a mountain, and Alice in Wonderland, where sleeping Alice travels through a rabbit hole into the dream world.
A talking white rabbit leads Alice to Wonderland. In shamanic cultures, the "Other I" travels in animal form or with auxiliary spirits as companions. In the rainforest of South America, where people don't know rabbits, it might be an agouti, a rodent related to guinea pigs. Alice falls into a dream during a picnic and the world changes - a Greek goatherd of antiquity would probably have met Satyre in such a "half sleep", being half human, half billy goat.
Dreaming, the dream time, is the beginning of the world for the Australian Aborigines. The creator modeled the solid forms of sky, earth and sea, plants, animals and people from the primordial matter. The creator gods and ancestors watch over the present world. The shamanic journey takes the path between these worlds, the world of men and the world of spirits in a controlled ecstasy.
Shamans communicate with the spirits in their imagination and need their support. Not only the place, but also the time opens the way for them. Therefore, their rituals often take place at night, in the dark when the spirits are born. Midnight, the ghost hour, Walpurgis, the night when spring replaces winter, the winter and summer solstice are such threshold times that enable spirits to enter the world of men.
Journey to the upper worldAs the smoke draws from the hole in the ceiling, the shaman's soul rises through this smoke hole into the upper world. He has to get into the shamanic state, the ecstasy, in order to be able to transcend his physical existence. The main way to get into this condition is not hallucinogenic substances. Toadstool, the Liane Ayahuasca, the Peyotl cactus with the alkaloid mescaline, thorn apple, tobacco smoke, juniper, sage, rosemary or bunchberry are considered teacher plants and the place where spirits live. But they do not have the meaning in shamanic ritual that hippies or Goa techno disciples suspect. Several shamans consciously reject these remedies and get into their condition solely through concentration.The journey into the spirit world is the core of the search for knowledge in which the shaman takes on his role as a spiritual leader and social designer. To do this, he goes into a changed state of consciousness and plunges into an imagined world. The change in perception was demonstrated by the Russian ethnologist Vladimir Bogoraz in his study of the Chukchi: “The illusion was so strong that I involuntarily reached up to grab the person speaking. The tones begin somewhere high up, they are gradually approaching, penetrate the walls like a storm, sink into the earth, where they fall silent. There are various voices, animal and bird voices, buzzing buzz. "The shaman's magical theater is not a delusion. There are charlatans; the audience is aware of the tricks. Illusions through optical illusions, sound and smoke in the literal sense serve to demonstrate access to the other world, like photos document a journey without being this journey itself.The effects are calculated to strengthen the trust of the participants. The drums beat faster and harder when the shaman moves his "wings" to fly into the spirit world. His dance becomes wilder and turns into a vortex. Then the shaman collapses, stares in the air, seems to be asleep or seems to be "next to him". He hums in a uniform chant or falls unconscious.In these conditions, he and the audience believe, his other ego is in the spirit world. The ancestor appears in the mask dancer, the stone turns into a ghost. The Hopis dancers know that their kajina costumes are not ghosts; but the spirits come into the world through their representation. The mountain spirits dance of the White Mountain Apache calls the mountain spirits.The ritual techniques can also include sleeping dreams, towards active work on the symbols that occur in that dream. Most animistic cultures interpret the imagery as the appearance of ghosts that are as real as living people or animals. The elements of the shamanic journey, the entrance through a tunnel into another world, seem to correspond to the human psyche. This is supported, firstly, by the fact that cultures that had not been in contact for tens of thousands of years developed the same techniques, and secondly, that shamanic images appear in the art of mentally ill people such as schizophrenics and manicemen.Shamanism envisions two realities, with societies like the Jivaros in the Amazon attaching greater importance to the hidden. In contrast to the night dream, the shaman remembers his experience completely when he returns to everyday life. So it is not a question of hallucinations, but of a mental experience embodied by the shaman. In contrast to the sleeping dream, he perceives his environment exactly. Drumming as a central element causes changes in the central nervous system. A frequency range of four to seven Hertz per second is considered particularly suitable for the light trance states that enable these experiences.Seeing the shaman as someone in a twilight state who cannot distinguish reality from fantasy is the misinterpretation of modern European arrogance. In the same way, Edgar Allan Poe's stories, for example, could be interpreted as the ill fantasies of a drug addict - and that is exactly what his enemies did.A shaman is not someone who is helplessly exposed to his "inner demons", but rather the one in his culture who knows how to deal with these "fantasies", classifies them and gains meaningful insights from seemingly senseless imagery. Events that are separated by space and time happen simultaneously. The world is literally crazy. In the dream reality, the shaman finds his power animal, his protective spirit, which represents the quintessence of the properties of a certain animal species. Once he has found this, he travels with him through the invisible world - often his soul travels in the form of an animal.A successful shamanic journey ends with the traveler returning to the normal world, to his body. There he classifies his experiences and draws conclusions from them for life questions that he had previously asked. The awakening from sleep or the end of a drug intoxication, the hangover after a night of drinking is comparable. But the shamanic journey is a conscious and controlled ecstasy that shapes the chaos, the intoxication.
Alice in Wonderland and the Shaman's Journey
"I don't want to go crazy," Alice said.
"Oh, that can't be avoided!"
The cat grinned.
“Everyone in this country is crazy. I'm crazy. You're crazy too. ”
"How do you know I'm crazy?"
"Otherwise you wouldn't be here," replied the cat.
Alice in Wonderland was originally published in Victorian England in 1865. The author, Lewis Carroll, was a mathematician in civil life. The journey of a little girl into a fantastic world is still a very big classic for children's books, extensively studied by literary scholars and even namesake for a psychological phenomenon, the "Alice in Wonderland Syndrome". This denotes a shift in perception in which those affected perceive the size of objects, people and animals in a distorted manner.
The hippies of the 1970s saw the description of a drug trip in Alice's story - Alice consumes liquids and cookies while she is in Wonderland. And hallucinogenic mushrooms, hash cookies or potions with mescaline extracts are literally known as magicals, also as role models for many fairy tales.
For example, the toadstool and the flashback of the "trip" could be hidden in Rumpelstiltskin, the little man who appears like lightning and disappears again. Trip means trip, and that the LSD trip is not a trip from Hanover to Berlin, should have been clear to the hippies too, at least as long as they weren't stuck on such a trip. Fairy tales serve to convey insights in a pictorial form and are therefore comparable to the myth, the poetry, the legend.
During a picnic, the girl Alice sees a white rabbit running to its burrow with a clock. Alice follows the rabbit and comes into an almost endless tunnel, in which she no longer knows where is up and down. Finally, at the end of this tunnel, she comes into a world that is so very different from everyday life: a rabbit asks Alice if it is the same if you say: "I see everything I eat" and "I eat everything, what I see ”, the cheshire cat only consists of its grin. Mini-animals move in a sea that consists of Alice's tears, a baby turns into a pig. She participates in a croquet game and in an absurd tea company. The participants in the Croquet game are playing cards that become “people”. In this country everyone is crazy, as the cat says - crazy about everyday reality could be added.
However, is Alice crazy in the sense of insane, is she a pitiable girl who gets caught up in delusions? The opposite is the case: Alice meets the contradictions of the wonderland impartially and finds a way to find her way through the illogic there. But it can only do this because it does not say “there is no such thing” right from the start, but because it engages in the wonderland, engages in a world that does not consist of the laws of consistency. Therefore, she can travel in this world and return from it. She returns: Alice doesn't end up in the psychiatric ward or jumps out of the window during a psychotic push, but wakes up under a tree, where her journey had started with her sister's picnic.
Your own culture and the original
In the crazy world of Wonderland, Alice encounters various characters that reflect Victorian England and at the same time represent prototypes: The evil queen, who wants to cut off everyone's head, i.e. uses violence, against what she does not understand is a variation of the evil witch , which can be found in countless fairy tales and is ultimately defeated by cunning and treachery. The prototype of this evil witch, such as the Russian Baba Yaga, are the all-giving and all-consuming goddesses of life and death of ancient cultures, such as the Indian Kali. The Cheshire Cat has its role model in the trickster, the charlatan of mythology. The croquet game and tea society reflect the English culture in which Carroll lived.
All of this also applies to shamans. Their encounters in the spiritual world, which for them, as for any serious therapist, artist, writer or humanities scholar, is much more than “just” fantasy, are culture-specific variants of archetypal imagery. However, these prototypes are only the coordinate system of subjective experiences, a story that is different every time and for every person.
Inner and outer reality
A shamanic journey is a personal assessment of the non-human environment that the person who makes it can only tell others because, as in every dream, he is the only one who experiences it in this form. At the same time, there are overarching patterns of interpretation. The place where Alice begins the journey is the non-human environment - it is in nature, the medium is a rabbit, a living being that is not a human being.
A shamanic journey means experiencing life-related questions in a figurative and physical way and finding meaningful answers to these questions. Experiences in everyday life combine with the inner images that lead a life of their own in each person. Viewing these dream images “only as dreams” blocks the way to decisive possibilities for human knowledge, even to their root history: animals also dream, and today biology assumes that dreams train survival techniques; the cat hunts in sleep, the dog runs.
The inner world, the world of dreams, the unconscious, the wonderland, merges space and time, above and below, logic and illogic - at the same time it gives the individual an orientation in his life and also in the material world. It does not help a child who dreams of monsters not to say that these monsters do not exist if these monsters are there every night for this child and are afraid of them. However, this child will gain security if it learns to deal with the monsters and loses fear of them. The monsters point to the core of his fear. They are symbols of a spiritual situation.
Normality and craziness
The encounter of events in the outside world and the subjective needs of a person without consistency, C.G. Jung synchronicity. And the experience in the world, in culture, in society, also in nature, for the most part cannot be controlled by us as individuals and too often appears absurd or absurd. Carroll shows us this logic of nonsense with a lot of wit and almost philosophical irony: Whoever is in the land of the mad is himself crazy. It is logical. To be crazy means to move away from the norm. However, the norm is not an absolute truth, but the rule that is considered binding. Where craziness is the rule, this rule is normal.
Carroll's life falls into the early stages of psychiatry. All those who did not meet the standards of Victorian England came to the then “madhouses”. These norms, however, appear enlightened to today's enlightened people, especially in the area of sexuality and certain rigid rituals such as the tea society. Anyone who would knock on the parents of a 20-year-old with a starched shirt and top hat and graciously ask them to go out with their daughter would be considered something crazy. The general rules are different today, and where everyone is crazy, being crazy is the rule.
The shaman Lewis Carroll?
Lewis Carroll can be described as a shaman. In everyday reality he was a mathematician, someone who examines the real world, the world that is outside of our consciousness and completely independent of our consciousness. Alice in Wonderland, on the other hand, shows a world that exists within our consciousness, or in what psychology calls the unconscious. What is happening in this world is crazy about the laws of science.
A shaman is not a madman who is helplessly exposed to the demons of his inner world, but an intermediary between the different worlds. He knows perfectly well that the spirit rabbit that travels with him into the underworld is not the rabbit that he has just hunted and eats for dinner. Similarly, a mathematician would say little about a picture of Dali if he calculated the dimensions of the canvas on which it was painted. Lewis Carroll seemed to be very aware of these different worlds.
Literary fakes such as Carlos Castaneda's "The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge" or Lynn Andrews' "Medicine Woman" have stood for a wave of "plastic shamans" since the 1970s, which are said to be Indian secret knowledge for one of late capitalism commercialize frustrated readership. Indians with feather headdresses, illuminated by the full moon and accompanied by a wolf, are the inspiration for "secret knowledge of Indian shamans" that a New Age community would like to acquire. Real Indian teachers like Vine Deloria attacked these charlatans massively - as well as activists of the American Indian Movement like Russell Means.
Deloria said, “White people in this country are so alienated from their own lives and so hungry for a real life that they grab every straw to protect themselves. They are so shaped by the quick kick that they want their spirituality to be pre-packaged, the more sensational the better. They pay a lot of dollars to anyone who is dishonest enough to promise them spiritual salvation after reading the right book or sitting in the right fifteen-minute session. ”
Oren Lyons, a traditional Onondaga chief, sees the problem even more deeply: “Non-Indians have gotten so used to these liars that they refuse when a real Indian spiritual teacher offers useful advice. It is not "Indian" enough for all of these non-Indian experts in Indian religion. This not only degrades Indian people, it also exposes the “instant experts” who think they have all the answers before they have even heard the questions. ”
Lyons sees a massive problem in the fact that “intercultural respect is more important today than ever in human history. And nothing blocks respect faster and more effectively than misconceptions by one party about the other. We have existential problems that threaten survival on the planet. Indians and non-Indians must address these issues together, and that means we must have an honest dialogue, but this dialogue is impossible as long as non-Indians have misconceptions about things as fundamental as Indian spirituality. ”
Janet McCloud, an elder of the Tulalip Nation, said: “First they came to take our land and water, then our fish and game. Then they wanted our minerals, and tried to take over our governments to get them. Now they want our religion too. Unfortunately, there are a lot of unscrupulous idiots walking around saying they are medicine men. And they sell a sweat lodge ceremony for fifty dollars. It's not just wrong, it's obscene. Indians don't sell their spirituality for no price. It's just another in a long series of thefts, and, in a way, it's the worst. ”
Mc Cloud continues: “These people come to the reservations and sometimes meet a spiritual teacher who is kind enough to talk to them, too kind for them. After fifteen minutes with this teacher they run amok and call themselves "certified medicine people" or even claim to be spiritual representatives of Indian people. (…) There are even Indians like Sun Bear or Wallace Black Elk who would even sell their own mother if they could make money with it. What they sell is not hers what they could sell, and they know it. They are thieves and sellers, and they know that too. That's why you no longer see them between Indian people. When we hold our traditional meetings, you never see the Sun Bears and this kind of slicer. ”
Matthew King, a Lakota spiritual teacher said, “Every part of our religion has its power and purpose. Every culture has its own ways. You cannot mix these ways together because each way is balanced. Destroying the balance is disrespectful and very dangerous. Therefore it is forbidden. "
He continues: “These things have to be learned and learning is very difficult. Therefore, there are very few real "medicine men" between us; only a few are selected. For someone who hasn't learned how to balance, it's very, very dangerous to try medicine. ”
The Northern Cheyenne Nation issued a guide in 1980 to recognize charlatans:
1) Which indigenous nation does this person represent?
2) Which clan and which society does it belong to?
3) Who taught them?
4) What is your home address?
However, adapting shamanic techniques is not necessary for cultural theft or charlatanism. The American anthropologist Michael Harner learned shamanic practices from Indians in North and South America, recognized similar techniques and results from other cultures, and developed core shamanism, which does not claim to convey "Indian wisdom", but instead uses methods derived from culture and religion act independently: drumsto get into the state of trance Introduction to the lower world, Journey to the upper world or Power animal search. The Harner-based Foundation for Shamanic Studies is the most important center of neo-shamanism.
The postmodern attitude to life combines and reassembles; therefore it fits well with the hybrid spirits and diverse experiences of shamanism. Dogma and doctrine are necessarily alien to both, and each shaman travels to his own cosmos.
While the early ethnologists devalued the shamanic trance as a mental illness, western esotericists fell into the opposite: they rejected scientific explanations and viewed the sensual as supernatural experiences. In doing so, they are ignoring the fact that shamans in shamanic cultures rely on empirical knowledge about medicinal plants that has been handed down over centuries and that they also systematically act “scientifically” in the “spiritual world”. In addition, they are also the “school doctors” of their societies: they appear to have broken bones, bandage wounds and carry out surgical interventions.
Shamanic experiences can be explained very well scientifically and used medically. The shamanic journeys are clearly structured; they are symbolic representations that are understood in the respective society. The body forms endorphins that trigger euphoria, amnesia and altered states of consciousness. These endorphins are released by dances, fasting and physical exertion carried out by shamans.
Shamanic healings can be scientifically explained as inspirations for self-healing. Thoughts affect the body, and the patient heals himself by changing his thoughts, for example by believing that a harmful mind disappears from his body. Lévi-Strauss, on the other hand, saw the healing at the symbolic level: the shaman therefore made a new language available to the patient; This enables the person concerned to understand the causes of the disease, to express it and to transform it. In this sense, a shaman behaves no differently than a psychotherapist - especially in conversation therapy.
A shamanic patient speaks through a specialist to the "ghosts" of the ancestors and animals; a patient in psychoanalysis by a specialist to people not present. Der Unterschied zwischen einem Patienten in der Psychoanalyse, der einen Konflikt mit seinem verstorbenen Vater durcharbeitet, und einem Schamanen, der mit den Geistern der Toten verhandelt, ist lediglich der kulturelle Kontext.
Heutige Traumtherapien arbeiten fast deckungsgleich mit Schamanen. Der Therapeut schließt von Träumen des Patienten auf dessen Probleme: Deutet ein Tier, das im Kopf des Betroffenen lebt, auf einen Gehirntumor? Oder auf ein psychisches Problem, das ihm „Kopfschmerzen“ bereitet? Der Schamane sieht solche Traumbilder zwar als Wirklichkeiten der Geisterwelt, handelt aber ähnlich. Er fragt nämlich nach den Geschehnissen im Alltag, die diese Geister auf den Plan rufen. Mit anderen Begriffen interpretiert auch er die Geister auf einer symbolischen Ebene und übersetzt diese auf die alltägliche Ebene.
Der schamanische Kosmos aus oberer, mittlerer und unterer Welt entspricht zudem ziemlich genau der Freudschen Trennung zwischen Über-Ich, Ich und Es, aber auch den beiden Systemen unseres Gehirns, dem langsamen, deduktiven und dem schnellem, intuitiven Denken. Auf den Feldern des Unbewussten, des Unterbewussten, des Vorbewussten, des Bewussten und des Überbewussten reist der Schamane und weiß dabei, auf welcher Ebene er sich bewegt. Der Schamane setzt dabei Intuition, Imagination und Inspiration als Mittel der Erkenntnis ein.
Vom klassischen Psychoanalytiker unterscheidet ihn, dass er den Patienten nicht von außen betrachtet, sondern in dessen Krankheitsprozess hineingeht, dabei aber die rationale Kontrolle im Rucksack behält. Diese Methoden kennen wir heute aus psychoaktiven Rollenspielen, in denen Patient und Therapeut Imagos inszenieren, die der Patient als positives Bild seiner selbst entwickelt. Der Schamane fungiert also auch als Verhaltenstherapeut. Heutige psychologische Studien sehen die Veränderung der Gefühle des Patienten während einer schamanischen Heilung als entscheidend für den Genesungsprozess.
Das schamanische Weltbild fördert vermutlich dir psychosomatische Heilung von Krankheiten. Während in der modernen Medizin der Patient, ob Maniker, Borderliner oder Schizophrener, als kranke Persönlichkeit gilt, ist im Schamanismus die Krankheit etwas von außen in den Patienten Eingedrungenes. Damit wird der Betroffene integriert, denn nicht er ist krank, sondern etwas Anderes macht ihn krank. Zudem beteiligt sich an schamanischen Heilungen die Gemeinschaft; der Kranke wird nicht ausgegrenzt – das allein setzt vermutlich eine Genesung in Gang.
Der Schamanismus unterscheidet sich von der klassischen Psychoanalyse in einem wesentlichen Punkt: Er trennt den Menschen nicht von der Natur und das Individuum nicht von den Kräften des Universums. Der Mensch ist eine der vielen Formen des Lebens, gemeinsam mit Tieren, Pflanzen, Tiergeistern, Ahnen und den Elementen Feuer, Wasser, Erde und Luft. Mit diesen steht er in lebendiger Wechselwirkung, und Krankheiten zeigen, dass die Harmonie gestört ist.
Ohne jede Mystik weiß auch die moderne Medizin, dass ungesunde Ernährung, bedrückende Arbeitsbedingungen, Sinnlosigkeit im Alltag und fehlender Zugang zur nichtmenschlichen Natur Krankheiten verursachen – ebenso begreift die Psychologie heute innere Bilder, also Einbildung, Eingebung und Empfindung, als Quellen der psychischen Gesundheit.
Ein Schamane ist hochsensibel, aber kein Maniker, ein Grenzgänger, aber kein Borderliner, ein Wanderer zwischen den Welten, aber kein Schizophrener. Er lebt am Rande des Abgrunds und kann gerade deshalb Gefährdete abhalten, hineinzustürzen. Er kennt diese Zustände und kann sie beim Erkrankten geraderücken.
Ein Schamane schafft Wissen über die Geisterwelt. Ersetzen wir Geisterwelten durch Geisteswelten, dann lässt sich der Beruf als Geisteswissenschaftler bezeichnen. Einen Weg zu finden, um sich in den Geistwelten zu Recht zu finden, ist die Aufgabe, die jeder Mensch zu meistern hat. (ua)
Author and source information
This text corresponds to the specifications of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical doctors.
Dr. phil. Utz Anhalt, Barbara Schindewolf-Lensch
- Vitebsky, Piers: Schamanismus. Reisen der Seele, Magische Kräfte, Ekstase und Heilung; Taschen, Köln, 2007
- Bulang, Esther: Spiritualität – Schamanismus – Psychotherapie; in: à jour! Psychotherapie-Berufsentwicklung, Vol. 5, Seite 19-22, 2019, ResearchGate
- Singh, Manvir: The cultural evolution of shamanism; in: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 41, 2018, Cambridge University Press