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Confusion - causes and treatment

Confusion - causes and treatment


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When people say that something is confused, it means that something has lost its natural order and has instead gone into a state of disorder. In humans, such confusion affects the state of mind.

Thoughts, memories, yes, even feelings and actions have become confused with their proper routine due to the confusion, which sometimes affects those affected very much. Everyday life can become an arduous challenge when the mental skills are "no longer in their proper place". In addition, confusion also affects the patient's perception and social life. But how can you get a confused mind back into order?

Definition

Medicine defines confusion or confusion as a disturbance of consciousness, which leads to inconsistencies (missing connections) in the area of ​​cognitive abilities. The following are relevant:

  • the memory or the world of thoughts,
  • the memory,
  • the concentration,
  • the orientation,
  • the perception,
  • the ability to speak
  • and / or a person's ability to coordinate.

Those affected have problems organizing their thoughts, remembering certain things, concentrating or orienting themselves in everyday life, correctly interpreting what they perceive, and performing orderly lines of communication and action. Confusion can either occur acutely or increase gradually, thus becoming a chronic problem.

Occasionally, confusion is also equated with amential syndrome (amentia). It is a hallucinatory state of confusion that goes hand in hand with disorientation, a distorted to illusory perception of reality, and incoherent thought processes. In addition, the so-called delirium, a state of mind that is characterized by disturbances in consciousness, memory and perception as well as sleep disorders and psychomotor disorders, is often associated with confusion.

The varying interpretations of confusion already show that in addition to the main symptoms in the area of ​​cognitive abilities, the symptoms can also cause other accompanying symptoms. Emotional confusion, for example in the form of inner restlessness, phobic fears or problems in dealing with one's own emotional world, is not uncommon in this regard. The causes of confusion are relatively diverse, but can be roughly divided into physical and psychological causes.

Some causes are harmless and often can be remedied with just a few simple everyday measures. However, other causes, such as a stroke as an organic cause, can result in serious and sometimes irreversible damage to the brain, which can make confusion a chronic problem and can only be treated to a limited extent.

Short-term confusion is usually harmless

Factors that lead to confusion in the short term are in most cases one of the psychological causes and are usually harmless. However, they have such a massive impact on the psyche for a limited period of time that it is difficult for those affected to concentrate or think clearly. In this context, emotional exceptional states in particular can be mentioned as possible triggers. Which includes:

  • Fear (e.g. fear of exams or fear of social confrontation),
  • Euphoria (e.g. falling in love or extreme anticipation for a special event),
  • Grief (e.g. through loss experiences, lovesickness or disappointment),
  • Feeling of being under pressure (e.g. due to stress at work or tight deadlines).

The shown examples of such influencing factors sound very banal at first glance, but show that the functionality of the brain depends crucially on external influences. In addition, emotional exceptional situations can occasionally be so drastic that they develop into a chronic psychological problem and are then no longer as harmless.

Psychological problems as the cause

Emotional stress is not necessarily a foreseeable problem. For example, traumatic experiences or depression can become a permanent burden on the psyche and cause a chronic course of symptoms such as confusion or disorientation. There are also a number of tangible mental illnesses that can also lead to chronic confusion. Examples include neuroses. A wide range of diseases that includes a variety of personality and behavioral disorders.

Anxiety disorders (phobias) are particularly well-known in this context, which under certain circumstances can provoke states of confusion. Sometimes the fear caused by the illness increases so much that apart from the object that triggers the fear or the situation that triggers the fear, hardly anything else comes into focus. A fact that can significantly impair cognitive performance and thus literally creates confusion in the mind. Another form of neurosis with a high potential for confusion is obsessive-compulsive disorder. Here compulsive courses of action or thought processes displace an orderly cognitive functioning.

Important: Although schizophrenic disorders are also neuroses, schizophrenia as an independent clinical picture must be clearly distinguished from confusion. Here one uses the concept of frustration for corresponding complaints.

In addition to the neuroses, psychoses are also known to promote confusion. They are fundamentally characterized by a distorted perception of reality and are also accompanied by symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions and impaired consciousness, which increases the risk of confusion dramatically. But degenerative processes in the brain, for example due to dementia, which are common for diseases such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's, can also lead to confusion about psychoses.

Sometimes psychoses in which states of confusion are triggered by psychotropic substances are clearly underestimated. Here, doctors speak of the so-called substance-induced psychosis. Corresponding substance examples can be found above all in the field of psychotropic drugs, intoxicants and luxury foods, for example in the form of the following substances:

  • Alcohol,
  • Amphetamines,
  • Benzodiazepines,
  • Caffeine,
  • Cannabis,
  • Cocaine,
  • LSD.

Accidental injuries

The causes that directly affect the brain also include internal diseases, lesions and injuries. With regard to accident scenarios, mere falls or bumps on the head can lead to confusion that usually lasts only a few minutes. From a medical point of view, processes of this type are typical of cerebral concussion and cerebral trauma. An impact or fall causes the brain to hit the hard cranium, causing it to be pressed in briefly.

In this way, the nerve cells in the brain can also be briefly shaken, because - figuratively speaking - they are bounced. A short-term loss of consciousness and memory gaps, but also headaches, dizziness and nausea are the result. In the worst case, the impact also causes serious injuries, which then lead to long-term confusion due to greater damage to the brain. Typical scenarios that can lead to confusion due to accidents are:

  • Everyday accidents (e.g. due to falling stairs or slipping),
  • Accidents at work (e.g. due to falling loads),
  • Traffic accidents (e.g. car accidents or bicycle falls),
  • Sports accidents (e.g. colliding with opponents in team sports).

If the symptoms resolve and do not worsen within 24 hours after an accident, there is usually no need to worry and a mild lesion can be assumed without major damage to the brain. On the other hand, if the symptoms are long-lasting or become even worse in the later course, severe damage to the brain tissue must be assumed.

A neurological examination, as well as temporary medical monitoring of the person concerned, is imperative here. In addition to persistent confusion, definite alarm signs that speak for medical or inpatient treatment include dizziness, nausea and language problems.

Organic brain diseases

Now the brain can be damaged in other ways besides mental disorders and accident injuries and as a result react with confusion. We are talking about serious diseases of the brain, which occasionally even lead to psychological impairments such as the psychoses already mentioned.

Brain disorders are very often based on impaired blood flow to the brain areas. But a disrupted nerve function is also conceivable as a trigger. The following table shows an overview of the possible diseases and the underlying pathological mechanism: Brain diseases directly influence the intactness of the mental state and consciousness.

illnessPathological mechanism
strokeReduced blood flow to the brain areas due to vascular occlusion
Cerebral hemorrhageMinimal supply to the brain areas
epilepsyDamage from lack of oxygen and electrical activity
MeningitisDamage from microorganisms
arteriosclerosisDamage from circulatory disorders
depressionsDamage caused by changes in the neurotransmitters
Brain tumorDamage from growth of degenerate cells

Special case brain infection: Infections basically mean a state of emergency for the brain, since it has to coordinate the immune system's processes to fight infection. Infectious diseases are even worse if they affect the brain directly. Infectious diseases such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) should be mentioned here, for example. It describes an infection of the central nervous system by the human polyomavirus JC.

Other infection germs can also rise into the brain and, for example, trigger meningitis (meningitis). This is especially the case with upper respiratory tract infections such as sinusitis. Without suitable counter-treatment, the infectious agents can easily settle into the brain via the frontal sinuses. The more the brain structure is affected by the infection, the more likely are cognitive disorders such as confusion, drowsiness or even a complete loss of consciousness with blackening in mind and, in the worst case, comatose dimensions.

These are particularly dangerous for brain infections because they indicate damage to the brain by the infectious agents. Infectious diseases within the brain very often end fatally at this stage or at least ensure that a patient no longer wakes up from a coma, and if so, only with long-term damage to the brain. Confusional states that occur immediately after a sinus or inflammation of the frontal sinus must therefore be clarified by a doctor.

Rather unknown and yet a real danger to the brain are parasites in the case of infections. Tapeworm infections, in particular, repeatedly cause eerie reports in this regard. The eggs of some tapeworms - such as the dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) - are in fact very small and can easily get into the brain via the bloodstream. In the worst case, the larvae of tapeworms, the so-called Finns, are deposited in the brain, provided that they get there via the bloodstream.

For example, several cases are known in which the larvae of the tapeworm Spirometra erinacei-europaei colonized human brains for years. The larger the parasites become, the more they tap into the nutrient supply to the brain and in this way provoke not only headaches and dizziness, but also tangible functional disorders such as disorientation and confusion.

Diseases of other organs

Other organs can also damage the brain via the bloodstream and ultimately lead to confusion. These are primarily the organs that play a key role in the metabolism. In detail it is about

  • the heart,
  • the liver,
  • the lung
  • and the kidneys.

Damage or disease to the lungs, for example, will inevitably have an impact on blood gas exchange sooner or later. Too little oxygen is taken up or too little carbon dioxide is emitted. Both result in a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain and can manifest itself, among other things, in confusion and diminished consciousness.

Confusion due to lung diseases

Possible clinical pictures include, in particular, respiratory diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive bronchitis, also known as COPD or smoking lung, haematothorax and pneumothorax. In all of the above cases, the oxygen intake of the lungs is massively impaired, which in addition to dizziness, fatigue and shortness of breath can also lead to confusion due to a lack of oxygen in the brain.

Likewise, lung tumors adversely affect the oxygen supply to the brain. And environmental-related oxygen deficits, for example due to poorly ventilated rooms or stays in a low-oxygen environment (e.g. in extreme mountain air) can also cause confusion.

Heart disease as a trigger

A pronounced heart damage, such as that which can occur in the course of heart failure, a heart attack or an inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis), leads to a reduced pumping capacity of the heart. This leads to chronic or acute acute reduced blood flow to the brain, which is usually expressed by symptoms such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion or loss of consciousness. In addition, heart disease can also affect lung function, which increases the risk of illness-related confusion twice.

In the case of a heart attack, there is also the complication that extreme oxygen deficiency leads to damage to the brain. Here, confusion could appear not only as a harbinger of the actual infarction, but also as a long-term consequence of functional disorders of the brain caused by the infarct.

Other heart diseases that can theoretically cause confusion due to impaired functioning of the heart are cardiac defects and cardiac arrhythmias.

Kidney disease

If the kidney tissue is pathologically damaged or destroyed, for example in the case of pronounced renal insufficiency, it can no longer perform its task as usual to rid the blood of metabolic end products and poisons. As a result, these substances remain in the blood in too high a concentration (uremia) and reach the brain via the bloodstream in other organs. There, these substances can trigger seizures, confusion and changes in consciousness, including coma.

A disease that is also closely related to the kidney here is gout. This leads to an increased accumulation of uric acid crystals in the body tissue and in the joints. In the case of highly advanced disease, in the case of gout, a massive migration of the uric acid crystals into the blood vessels and thus into the brain is possible, which can lead to perception and consciousness disorders in the form of confusion.

Liver diseases

The liver also serves as a metabolic organ and is therefore indirectly connected to the brain. Since internal liver substances are filtered out of the blood and metabolic products are broken down, damage or malfunctions of the liver are even very complicated when it comes to brain function. If the organ is damaged, for example due to cirrhosis of the liver or bacterial inflammation such as hepatitis, the pollutants also accumulate in the brain and gradually cause symptoms such as

  • Sleep disorders,
  • Lack of concentration,
  • Muscle tremors of the hands,
  • Confusion and
  • Diminished consciousness.

The latter can even go as far as a coma, which is why mental complaints related to liver disease should be taken extremely seriously. In addition, the clinical picture of the so-called fatty liver should not be underestimated. In the further course of the disease, it can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and thus impair complete failure of the organ.

Fatty liver is usually caused by an unhealthy diet that consumes too many fatty foods. At some point, the liver is so overwhelmed with fat digestion that it literally breaks down under the high fat load.

Vascular disorders and confusion

Speaking of nutrition: Vascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis and high blood pressure are often due to an unhealthy diet. The two symptoms show effects in the brain that seriously jeopardize its functioning. High blood pressure in particular harbors the risk of permanent enlargement of the brain vessels, known as an aneurysm. If important areas of the brain are pressed as a result, functional disorders and associated symptoms such as confusion cannot be excluded.

Danger: Vascular diseases that affect the brain can lead to instabilities in the area of ​​the vessel walls. The resulting brain hemorrhage represents a life-threatening situation and is a medical emergency! Please take symptoms such as confusion with existing vascular disorders seriously and go to the doctor too soon rather than too late!

Drugs and medication

Confusion is often due to the consumption of intoxicants, mostly in the form of alcohol or drugs (e.g. cannabis, heroin, LSD or opiates), or occurs when these toxins are withdrawn. The effect occurs when consumed by an accumulation of toxins in the brain, which can sometimes also cause internal brain damage.

In the case of withdrawal symptoms, on the other hand, a lack of previously administered narcotic drugs provokes disorders in the area of ​​brain performance, since this was previously adjusted to the supply of appropriate substances and was therefore dependent on them. If there is no addictive substance, the brain reacts with panic, which ultimately causes confusion.

In this context, medicinal substances are also mentioned as possible addictive substances. In general, the possible ways in which medication can lead to confusion are very broad. For example, some drugs can cause confusion as a side effect or, when taken with other drugs at the same time, lead to drug interactions, which include brief confusion.

If the affected person notices corresponding problems in connection with the time of taking medication, it is imperative that they report this observation to their treating doctor. There is also a phenomenon called through syndrome. This leads to a state of acute confusion, sometimes with aggressive tendencies of the person concerned towards themselves, relatives or medical personnel directly or shortly after a surgical intervention. Scientists have not yet been able to fully understand the underlying mechanism. However, one suspects a multifactorial occurrence from anesthesia intolerance, lack of fluids, infections already existing before the procedure and sensory overload. Older people are particularly often affected by the syndrome. However, it can generally occur at any age.

If the continuity syndrome is accompanied by a drop in consciousness, this is a special form of delirium. Age, nutritional and environmental factors also play a role here. Many older people are aware of the effect that insufficient daily fluid intake can quickly lead to a state of slight confusion. This is particularly common in patients with advanced age because they feel thirsty due to age.

For this reason, relatives or nursing staff should not immediately ring the alarm bells in the direction of dementia if they find the elderly confused from time to time. Instead, it is important to ensure that there is a controlled fluid intake. On the other hand, confusion due to lack of fluids is by no means a phenomenon that can only be found among older people. Higher fluid loss in younger years, for example in diseases associated with diarrhea and vomiting, can also cause confusion if the deficiency is not adequately compensated for.

In order to remain deficient, a lack of nutrients, such as poor nutrition or radical diets, can also be mentioned as a possible cause of confusion. Because like all other body organs, the brain needs a certain basic supply of nutrients to maintain its functions. Above all, a deficit

  • Vitamin A,
  • Vitamin B,
  • Vitamin C,
  • Vitamin E,
  • Protein,
  • Omega fatty acids,
  • Calcium,
  • Iodine,
  • Magnesium,
  • Sodium and
  • zinc

leads all too easily to confusion as a symptom of a deficiency. The worst form of nutrient deficiency, the accompanying complication of which can be confusion, is posed by Marasmus - a chronic protein deficiency that is particularly common in developing countries with food shortages.

Another everyday or environmental aspect that is related to confusion is long-term stress, in the worst case paired with chronic lack of sleep. A sustained overload of the cognitive functions promotes their potential for disruption. This is most often expressed in forgetting appointments, arrangements or even days of the week and procedures. This is bad in everyday life not only with regard to one's own professional activity, but also when it comes to private life.

Because both social contacts in the circle of friends and contact with family members can be affected by the confusion of a person. For those affected, this condition is associated with great suffering, because they feel that they can no longer meet anyone's requirements. They feel overused with the social as well as the everyday challenges and in the worst case collapse under the weight of their confusion.

Diagnosis

In view of the various possible causes, the diagnosis to explain confusion can be extremely extensive and lengthy. A detailed patient survey regarding the patient's medical history, but also about personal everyday and nutritional behavior form a first important approach here. Then an examination is carried out according to the criteria of the differential diagnosis.

A physical examination can, for example, determine a conspicuous body condition, as is typical for malnutrition and numerous organ diseases. Further information is provided by blood, urine and stool tests, which in addition to nutrient deficits can also reveal inflammation markers, metabolic abnormalities and possible infectious agents. In the further course - depending on the suspicion - imaging examination measures take place. A close-up view of the brain, for example using CT, MRI or X-ray, is crucial in order to be able to assess the current state of the brain.

Organs such as the liver, lungs or heart should also be carefully examined during this diagnostic step, provided that there are indications of a possible disease in this area. If necessary, endoscopic procedures are also used to examine the organs in more detail. Diagnosing psychological causes is somewhat difficult. If neurological diseases such as epilepsy are involved, as the after-effects of which confusion manifests itself almost as standard, diagnostic methods such as the EEG must be used. Here, the patient's brain waves are measured under certain breathing rhythms to see if the particular breathing challenge affects the seizure threshold.

On the other hand, phobias, obsessive behavior and mental stress require a diagnosis by a psychotherapist. For this, the treating doctor is often provided with individual questionnaires.

Tip: Another tool to help identify confusion is patient diaries. Here, those affected can record situations in which they felt confused or were unable to keep up with their everyday plans due to feelings of confusion. The intensity and duration of the conditions can be read very well from the diary entries.

Therapy

Possible therapeutic steps to treat confusion can include numerous measures. From medication steps to relaxation measures and behavioral therapy to operations, a lot is conceivable here, whereby the respective treatment options strongly depend on the underlying cause.

Medical therapy

In the event of confusion, infectious diseases, inflammation and other serious organ diseases make it necessary to take antibiotic, anti-inflammatory or metabolism-regulating preparations. Antiepileptics are also conceivable for neurological diseases, and antidepressants are conceivable for psychological complaints, the latter in particular being used with extreme caution, since their addictive potential is very large and the list of possible side effects is extremely long.

Which medication is actually used here has to be decided individually on a case-by-case basis. If the confusion results from drug interactions, the attending physician must carefully review the prescription of the medication and, if necessary, discontinue medication or replace it with other medication.

If fluid deficiency is the cause of temporary confusion, infusion therapy with electrolyte solutions via the vein is the method of choice. In this way, chronic and acute fluid loss can be remedied quickly and easily. However, it is also important that those affected also ensure that they take in sufficient fluids after completing the infusion therapy. Confusional states, which are caused by basic psychiatric illnesses, are often reduced in intensity with sedatives.

Psychotherapy

Psychological problems, such as depression, psychoses or neuroses, cannot be solved with the help of medication alone. In the vast majority of cases, behavioral or conversation therapy is also required to free the mind and soul from the psychological stress. In the case of phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorders, for example, behaviors can be learned that enable better handling of the disease. Mind training is also of great importance in this regard, as it not only breaks the spiral of fear and coercion, but at the same time also directs a confused mind back in an orderly fashion.

Relaxation therapy

Regardless of whether it is stress, mental stress or nerve-consuming illnesses - measures to relax can do a lot in the event of confusion. This gives the mind the opportunity to breathe deeply, which often already works wonders. In addition, a stressful everyday life can only be alleviated by planning sufficient periods of rest.

Organs affected, as well as a damaged immune system (e.g. due to an infectious disease) also benefit from targeted relaxation methods. In addition to courses such as yoga, reiki or meditation, these can also consist of maintaining healthy sleep hygiene, sound rituals before falling asleep or regular stays in nature.

Nutritional therapy

When it comes to deficiency states or cardiac, vascular and liver diseases caused by improper nutrition, a change in diet has top priority. A regulated supply of important minerals, vitamins and protein and omega-fatty acid-containing food is therefore essential. In general, a conscious diet can also help with other causes of confusion and, for example, speed up the recovery process in the presence of the disease. Roughly, such a diet should contain a lot of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fish and low-fat dairy products are also recommended. In addition, care must always be taken to ensure adequate hydration.

Home remedies

Some of the causes of confusion are relatively easy to deal with, especially if they are due to living circumstances. A stress reduction, for example in the form of relaxation exercises, sufficiently long sleep and rest phases and a reduction of stress hormones through sports, is a conceivable way to relieve the inner tension in those affected and to return to an order of his mind as well as his appointments, requirements and obligations to sweep.

If the confusion is due to a lack of fluids, it is helpful to ensure a regular hydration, especially for older people and children, to put a glass of water or better still a container with the favorite drink of the person concerned in every room of daily life. As a result, the drink catches the eye more quickly and they remember to drink more frequently.

Keeping a drinking log can also be useful for checking your own drinking habits. Die Eigenverantwortung erhöht bei sehr jungen wie sehr alten Menschen gleichermaßen die Motivation, denn beide Altersgruppen hören sehr oft die abgedroschene Phrase „Du musst mehr trinken“, was nicht immer den nötigen Anreiz schafft, dieser Anweisung auch tatsächlich nachzukommen. Ein Trinkprotokoll drückt darüber hinaus in fassbaren Zahlen aus, wie wenig oder viel tatsächlich getrunken wurde, und kann dadurch unter Umständen dank Faktenbelegen eine höhere Sensibilität für das Thema erzeugen.

Naturheilkundliche Behandlung

Der naturheilkundliche Ansatz darf die schulmedizinische Behandlung bei Verwirrtheit natürlich nicht ersetzen oder gar behindern. Aber die Naturheilkunde kann unter fachmännischer Betreuung den Betroffenen zu einer schnelleren Genesung und Rückbildung des Symptoms verhelfen. Gerade im Bereich der Alzheimer-Therapie ist die Naturheilkunde auf dem Vormarsch und hält einige erfolgsversprechende Präparate parat. Zum Einsatz kommen dabei gerne Zubereitungen, die in hohen Konzentrationen Auszüge aus dem Ginkgo-Baum (Ginkgo biloba) enthalten. Die Inhaltsstoffe des Baums regen die Durchblutung an und wirken so einer Minderdurchblutung und Minderversorgung entgegen.

Zur Behandlung von kurzzeitigen Verwirrtheitszuständen, zum Beispiel im Zuge eines Durchgangssyndroms oder eines Schlaganfalls, hat die Behandlung mit Arnica gute Erfolge gezeigt.

Operative Therapie

Einige Erkrankungen des Gehirns können und müssen operativ versorgt werden, um eine dauerhafte Schädigung des Hirngewebes zu vermeiden. Oft verursachen Blutungen, Entzündungen und Tumore eine Schwellung der Hirnmasse (Hirnödem), die letztlich durch die Konstruktion des harten Schädels eine Einklemmung des Gehirns und sogar den Tod der Betroffenen zur Folge haben kann.

Um das zu verhindern, werden in der Neurochirurgie häufig Entlastungslöcher in den Schädel gebohrt, Drainagen angelegt oder es wird auch die Schädeldecke zeitweise entfernt. Hierdurch wird eine Entlastung des Hirngewebes erreicht. Ein operativer Eingriff in das Gehirn (zzgl. Chempotherapie) ist außerdem bei parasitären Infektionen durch Bandwürmer notwendig. Und auch Gefäßerkrankungen des Gehirns bedürfen gelegentlich einer Operation.

In der Lungenheilkunde sind chirurgische Eingriffe ebenfalls nicht selten. Neben der Anlage von Drainagen, um eingedrungene Luft oder Blut ableiten zu können, werden je nach Grunderkrankung auch Lungenteile oder ganze Lungenflügel operativ entfernt.

Ähnlich sieht es bei zu stark beschädigten Organabschnitten im Bereich der Leber oder der Niere aus. Im Notfall muss hier eine vollständige Organtransplantation erfolgen.

Bei Herzerkrankungen wird hingegen so lange wie möglich versucht, durch operative Organkorrekturen oder den Einsatz von Herzprothesen (z.B. künstliche Herzklappe oder Herzschrittmacher) das Organ zu erhalten. Denn eine Teilresektion oder gar die Komplettentfernung des Herzens zu Gunsten eines Transplantates sind sehr riskant und erfordern zusätzlich einen passenden Spender, der schon bei Lungen-, Leber- und Nierentransplantaten nicht immer gefunden wird.

Erkrankungen, die Verwirrtheit verursachen können: Depressionen, Angststörungen, Zwangsstörungen, Psychosen, Demenz, Parkinsson, Alzheimer, Gehirnerschütterung, Schädel-Hirn-Trauma, Schlaganfall, Hirnblutung, Epilepsie, Hirnhautentzündung, Arteriosklerose, Depressionen, progressive multifokale Leukenzephalopathie, Nasennebenhöhlenentzündung, Stirnhöhlenentzündung, Bandwurminfektion, Lungenfibrose, Hämatothorax, Pneumothorax, Lungentumore, Herzinfarkt, Herzinsuffizienz, Herzmuskelentzündung, Niereninsuffizienz, Gicht, Fettleber, Hepatitis, Leberzirrhose, Aneurysma, Durchgangssyndrom. (ma)

Author and source information

This text corresponds to the requirements of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical doctors.

Swell:

  • Matthias Maschke et al.: Alkoholdelir und Verwirrtheitszustände, Leitlinien für Diagnostik und Therapie in der Neurologie, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurologie (DGN), (Abruf 15.08.2019), AWMF
  • Juebin Huang: Delir, MSD Manual, (Abruf 15.08.2019), MSD
  • Walter Hewer, Christine Thomas, Lutz Michael Drach: Delir beim alten Menschen: Grundlagen - Diagnostik - Therapie - Prävention, Kohlhammer Verlag, 2016
  • Wolfgang Hasemann, Egemen Savaskan: Leitlinie Delir: Empfehlungen zur Prävention, Diagnostik und Therapie des Delirs im Alter, Verlag Hogrefe AG, 1. Auflage, 2017
  • Florian Schimböck: Screening- und Assessmentinstrumente zur Erkennung von Delirien, Springer Verlag, 1. Auflage, 2016
  • Juebin Huang: Übersicht über Delir und Demenz, MSD Manual, (Abruf 15.08.2019), MSD

ICD-Codes für diese Krankheit:F05, R41.0, F44.88ICD-Codes sind international gültige Verschlüsselungen für medizinische Diagnosen. You can find yourself e.g. in doctor's letters or on disability certificates.


Video: Confusion: delirium, dementia or both? (May 2022).