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Optic neurophathy: causes and complaints
Not only large body organs such as the heart, brain, liver or kidneys can suffer from an infarction. Such an event can also catch the eye. In this case, one also speaks of an anterior ischemic optic neurophathy (AION), better known as an eye infarction (apoplexia or opticomalacia). The infarction of the eye is always an emergency situation, because the lack of oxygen in the visual organs caused by the infarct can lead to permanent eye damage and thus to vision loss. It is therefore necessary to act swiftly, because in the worst case, an eye infarction can lead to a complete loss of vision, especially if it is not treated immediately by a doctor.
An infarct basically means the loss of body tissue (necrosis) due to a lack of oxygen supply to the affected tissue section. The inadequate supply of tissue with oxygen is also referred to in medicine as hypoxia and results from an existing circulatory disorder (ischemia) in the form of reduced blood flow to the tissue or a complete circulation blockage.
In the event of an eye infarction, there is reduced blood flow in the artery of the eye (artery ophthalmica). It arises from the carotid artery (internal carotid artery), which belongs to the cerebral arteries, and is therefore closely connected to the nerve stimuli that are sent from the brain to the eye and vice versa. In the event of insufficient blood flow to the artery of the eye, the optic nerve (optic nerve) or the head of the optic nerve is particularly affected by the infarction. As a result, damage to the nerve fibers occurs, which initially causes an acute deterioration in vision. If the reduced blood flow to the optic nerve persists after this, there may be a permanent loss of vision. Because just a few hours are enough for irreparable optic nerve damage to develop an eye attack.
Medicine differentiates between two different mechanisms of origin for the reduced blood flow to the eye. In most cases, there is a circulatory disorder in the eye due to occlusion of the supplying blood vessels. A low level of care caused by bleeding from leaky or injured vessels is far less common. Furthermore, the circulatory disorders and bleeding of the vessels themselves can have different causes. Very often, however, the problem is based on diseases or at least disorders of the cardiovascular system. A distinction is made between three types of eye infarction depending on the type and location of the cause of the disease:
- Arteriitic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AAION):
The eye infarction results from an existing inflammation of the artery, which in turn triggers the reduced blood flow
- Non-arterial anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAAION):
Eye infarction and insufficient blood flow to the artery of the eye have no inflammatory cause
- Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION):
There is a particularly deep vascular occlusion, which is relatively rare, but is fundamentally possible
Regardless of how the vascular occlusion came about, the result is a reduced supply of all types of tissue that are located in the supplying area of the blood vessel. The retina is particularly sensitive to such reduced supplies. It no longer receives enough oxygen to carry out the visual process and the end products of the metabolism accumulate in the tissue because they can no longer be removed. This results in considerable damage to the tissue cells and they can no longer perform their usual task. The body tries to compensate for minor damage by sprouting new blood vessels to ensure blood circulation. However, these are of poor quality and very prone to failure. They tear quickly and in turn can cause bleeding, which leads to further tissue damage.
No matter what type of eye infarction, the health complaint should always be seen as an emergency. So if you suddenly notice a deterioration in your vision, you should always consult a doctor immediately. However, it is not advisable to make an appointment with a family doctor or ophthalmologist, as there may be long waiting times in the patient's room and the risk of permanent optic nerve damage increases with each passing minute. Instead, it is strongly recommended to call an emergency doctor, even if the symptoms do not appear to be life-threatening.
Attention: An eye infarction often goes undetected for a while because it rarely causes pain. As a result of the circulatory disorder, there is a lack of supply to the retina and therefore possible partial blindness of the eye. However, often only small parts of the retina are initially affected, so that the healthy parts of the retina and the second eye can compensate for retinal failure. Therefore, the gradual visual impairment and the extent of the eye infarction are often only recognized as the disease progresses.
Heart and vascular diseases as the main cause
As with all organs, oxygen circulation in the eye also occurs through arteries and veins. The arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the eye, while the veins drain oxygen-poor blood from the eye. In addition, the eye is supplied with nutrients via the blood vessels mentioned, the arteries of the eye being responsible for the supply of fresh nutrients and the veins for the removal of metabolic end products. An eye infarction therefore not only leads to a lack of oxygen, but also to an insufficient nutrient supply to the eye. A causative occlusion of the arteries of the eye cannot only be triggered by diseases and symptoms that are localized in the arteries themselves. Likewise, a vein health problem can lead to the problem. The causes can therefore be roughly divided into the following two main fields:
- Eye infarction due to artery or branch artery occlusion
- Eye infarction due to venous or venous occlusion
With a view to inflammatory and non-inflammatory causes of eye infarctions, a corresponding classification of diseases must also be taken into account.
Non-arterial anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAAION)
Many well-known heart and vascular diseases in themselves are causes of a non-inflammatory eye infarction. For example, in the case of vein occlusion, it is usually an inflammation-free blood build-up of oxygen-poor blood, which ultimately also results in a backlog in the arteries and thus arterial vascular occlusion. Regardless of the situation, circulatory disorders in both types of vessels are mostly responsible for the same causes. They often arise from vascular diseases such as hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). This leads to deposits of various substances, such as blood lipids or lime on the vessel walls. At a certain point, these so-called plaque deposits constrict the vessels so much that the natural blood flow is considerably impaired. In addition to high blood pressure, there is also a risk of complete vascular occlusion.
A common complication in this scenario is coronary artery disease (CHD). But an eye infarction can also be the result of arteriosclerosis. If vascular plaque is deposited directly in the arteries of the eyes, the risk of an internal vascular occlusion is significantly increased. In addition, plaque deposits located elsewhere can later become detached and be flushed into the arteries of the eyes as a blood clot, where they then clog the affected blood vessel all too easily.
Such a scenario is favored by existing high blood pressure, which usually arises from pre-narrowed vessels and thus promotes the release of plaque residues. In addition, high blood pressure can also trigger an eye infarction by itself, namely when the increased vascular pressure makes the vascular walls unstable. In such a case, vascular bleeding and thus reduced blood flow to the eye can no longer be excluded. In this context, the cause of high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease are often unhealthy everyday habits, such as
- unhealthy or high-fat diet,
- Lack of exercise,
- Obesity or
Other heart and vascular diseases that can either directly or indirectly promote an eye infarction are eye vein thrombosis and blood coagulation disorders. An example of the latter is, for example, factor V suffering, which is considered the main factor for an increased risk of thrombosis. In addition, a lack of blood (anemia) in the long run provokes poor blood flow to the optic nerve. Heart diseases such as heart failure and heart defects are also conceivable. In addition, cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation and vascular-based eye tumors in the area of the optic nerve can promote disturbed blood circulation in the eye and thus an eye infarction.
Arteriitic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AAION)
Inflammation-related forms of eye infarction, on the other hand, arise primarily from vascular inflammation (vasculitis). In many cases, these have an immunological background and are therefore mostly autoimmune diseases. The following main forms are defined as vasculitis:
- Cogan-I syndrome:
Vascular inflammation in the area of the inner ear with involvement of the eyes, the cause of which is thought to be autoimmune reactions.
An autoimmune disease in which inflammatory cells from the group of granulocytes migrate into the vascular tissue and erroneously attack it.
- Purpura Schönlein-Henoch:
Multi-system disease, also caused by autoimmune processes, in which the capillaries of the skin (including the eye membranes), the intestine, the joints and the kidneys are affected by inflammation.
This vasculitis has a rheumatic character and increasingly leads to the failure of inflammatory antibodies from the group of cryoglobulins when the temperature changes (heat)
- Kawasaki syndrome:
Also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (MCLS), Kawasaki syndrome causes necrotizing vascular inflammation of the small and medium arteries. Infants are primarily affected between the ages of 1 and 2, although the appearance of the disease initially has the character of infectious diseases such as measles or scarlet fever. In addition to fever, glossitis (lacquer or strawberry tongue) and measles-like rash, the typical accompanying symptoms of MCLS also include conjunctivitis, which can be a first indication of an impending eye attack.
- Behçet's disease:
Another rheumatic vasculitis, also known as malignant aphthosis, which primarily affects the veins and capillaries.
- Polyarteritis nodosa
a vasculitis that focuses on the medium-sized vessels of the calves, forearms, but also of the organs such as the eye and leads to inflammation nodules arranged like pearls.
- Giant cell arteritis:
Also known as cranial arteritis or Horton's disease, giant cell arteritis causes inflammation of the veins in the temporal arteries, which in the advanced stage of the disease can also extend to the arteries located next to the temples.
- Takayasu arteritis:
A special form of giant cell arteritis, which triggers granulomatous inflammatory reactions in the area of the aorta and its skin branches and thus also the carotid artery and the artery of the eye.
- Cerebral vasculitis:
In cerebral vasculitis, the vessel walls of the central nervous system are affected by the immunological inflammatory reactions, which is why the optic nerve and its surrounding vessels can be very easily affected by the inflammatory process.
Eye infarction with vascular bleeding
As already indicated, vascular bleeding in the area of the rear eye and the associated bruising (hematoma) can also be responsible for an eye infarction. If a supplying blood vessel begins to bleed in the area of the eye, this alone causes a insufficient supply of the tissues. Bleeding also increases the pressure in the eye, which in turn places additional strain and damage on the tissue cells.
Although bleeding of this type is far less common as the cause of the eye's sunset, there are various factors that can increase the risk of bleeding. For example, vascular diseases such as vasculitis, high blood pressure or arteriosclerosis are able to trigger the bleeding. In addition, there is a series of vascular damage, which in turn can be triggered by different health problems.
In this context, special mention should be made of special vascular weaknesses through which bleeding is provoked even with the slightest vascular stress (e.g. coughing or sneezing). A typical disease that affects the vascular health of the eye significantly more often than expected is diabetes mellitus. For example, vitreous hemorrhage is based in some cases on diabetic vascularization in the eye. Doctors speak of diabetic retinopathy here.
In addition to injury trauma, other reasons for this bleeding of the eye's own vitreous body can be degenerative eye diseases such as macular degeneration. The functionality of the retina is impaired by damage to the yellow spot (macula lutea), which sometimes provokes a considerable loss of visual acuity. The visual impairment can widen in the later course of the disease until complete blindness of the affected eye, which is only too happy to be announced by a previous eye infarction.
Some medications are also known to impair vascular stability. An example of this are metabolic preparations from the field of cholesterol-lowering agents (statins). These are known to harden the arteries in the long term, which is not only a major cause of the development of type 2 diabetes, but also increases the risk of vascular bleeding. Hyphaema is also not to be mistaken as the cause of an eye infarction. A build-up of blood in the anterior chamber that can occur as a result of either injury or eye disease.
Eye disorders as the cause of eye infarction
Hyphaema is very often triggered by eye diseases such as the so-called iris (also: iritis or uveitis). Possible accompanying complaints of this disease range from versatile inflammation of the eye cells to vasculitides. There are four main forms of uveitis:
- Anterior uveitis:
Inflammation of the iris affects the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, which can lead to infarct edema in the optic nerve area.
- Uveitis intermedia:
The inflammation of the iris concentrates on the vitreous. In addition to eye edema, vascular inflammation of the retinal veins is particularly characteristic of this form of uveitis.
- Posterior uveitis:
The inflammation caused by the disease affects the retina and choroid of the eye.
A hybrid of the three forms of uveitis already mentioned, which due to its extensive training has a particularly high risk of infarction.
It can be guessed that numerous eye diseases lay the foundation for an eye infarction motivated by inflammation. The list of corresponding diseases is very long. In addition to inflammation of the rain skin, conjunctivitis (conjunctivitis) is particularly well known. It is characterized by increased circulation in the rain skin in combination with conjunctival swellings, which put a lot of strain on the blood vessels and can either lead to swelling-related vascular occlusion or damage to the vessels caused by the increased blood flow and thus to bleeding. In both cases, an eye infarction is possible in the final stage of the course of the disease. Similar courses can also be found for the
- Choroid inflammation (choroiditis),
- Inflammation of the cornea (keratitis),
- Inflammation of the dermis (scleritis),
- Inflammation of the retina (retinitis)
- and optic nerve inflammation (neuritis nervi optici).
hold tight. In addition, there are eye diseases that provoke optic nerve and vascular damage due to increased pressure in the eye. These include, for example, the notorious cataract, glaucoma and vitreous detachment. Unlike eye infections, a non-inflammatory eye infarction is very likely with these diseases.
The entirety of possible eye diseases which, if left untreated or inevitably lead to the loss of optic nerve tissue, is far from being covered by all the examples mentioned. However, it can already be seen that an internal infarction can always be traced back to significant functional disorders of one or more eye elements. As far as possible, it is therefore important to heal eye diseases promptly and through professional medical treatment.
Eye infarction due to stress
Stress is known to have an impact on many areas of health. Even a stressful everyday life does not stop at the eyes. Usually, the stress initially leads to increased blood pressure, which, as already described, can lead to an eye infarction in a variety of ways. In addition, a lack of recovery also places additional strain on the nerves of the eye. Typical scenarios that promote stress-related eye infarction:
- long staring at the screen,
- Activities in poorly lit surroundings,
- Activities in a polluted environment (especially without safety glasses),
- Lack of sleep as well
- a full schedule.
Regardless of the underlying cause, an eye infarction has very dangerous consequences for the eye. The damaged or weakened vascular and optic nerve substance can cause inflammatory infections or edema in the affected eye area, which increases the intraocular pressure. The retinal cells in particular are incredibly sensitive to such processes. Ultimately, retinal detachment or optic nerve detachment can occur, which can result in partial blindness or even complete blindness in the affected eye if intervention is not taken early. Often, an impending eye infarction is also announced by conspicuous accompanying symptoms.
In the case of existing inflammations, for example, annoying itching or burning eyes is common. Visual disturbances, such as blurred vision due to reduced visual acuity, are also typical for eye infarctions. The visual impairment usually occurs within a few minutes and with special intensity. Delayed or completely absent pupil reactions can also be observed in the acute phase of the infarct. Overall, the following symptoms are associated with the eye infarction:
- Burning eyes,
- Eye pain,
- Loss of visual acuity,
- generally changing perception of the environment,
- dizziness caused by perceptual disorders,
- delayed pupil reaction,
- Inflammation as well
- Edema formation.
Important: Eye infarctions are very insidious because they are painless in most cases. Often only a brief visual impairment is perceived by the person concerned. Since the body can also compensate for minor deficiencies itself by growing new blood vessels, even short-term visual impairments can regress, so that the person concerned does not suspect anything to worry about at first glance. The real extent of the damage is often only discovered by chance or when it is very advanced. Precisely because of this insidious eye infarction, visual impairments such as:
- See spots, dots, shadows,
- Changes in visual acuity,
- obscure vision,
- increasing restriction of the visual field.
always be taken seriously and examined by a doctor as soon as possible.
In order to be able to initiate suitable therapy as quickly as possible in the event of an eye infarction, patients should immediately go to the family doctor after finding any inconsistencies in the area of visual function and eye sensation. In an emergency, he will arrange an emergency transfer to the ophthalmologist. Only specialists in ophthalmology have the necessary specialist knowledge and professional equipment to be able to quickly initiate the right examination and emergency measures in an acute situation.
In addition to a detailed patient survey on existing symptoms and pre-existing conditions, targeted eye tests and imaging examination procedures are necessary for an eye infarction. Which includes:
- Eye test:
Eye tests are necessary if an eye attack is suspected. For example, there are special light tests in which the pupil reaction and its size change are checked in the light and in the dark. A visual acuity test also helps with an eye attack. Patients are asked to read rows of numbers and letters of different sizes (so-called optotypes), while alternately covering the left and right eyes.
- Slit lamp examination:
For this purpose, doctors use a slit lamp to examine the foreground of the eye, which can be used to illuminate the ocular sections of the eye. The lamp is attached together with a microscope to specially designed equipment on which the patient must rest his chin. During the slit lamp examination, the illuminated eye areas can then be examined in detail through the microscope.
Examination of the fundus is also known as ophthalmoscopy. An electrical eye mirror (ophthalmoscope), a type of magnifying glass with a light source attached to it, which, like the slit lamp, allows the affected eye to be illuminated serves as a diagnostic aid.
- Intraocular pressure measurement (tonometry):
Ophthalmologists also use special devices to assess the pressure conditions in the eye. The procedures here are very different:
- Applanation tonometry:
Eye pressure is measured using a measuring body attached to a slit lamp. For this purpose, the doctor introduces an aqueous fluorescein solution into the conjunctival sac of the eye before the measuring body is gently pressed against the cornea of the eye. The force that must be used to bring the measuring body into contact with the cornea then provides information about the intraocular pressure.
- Dynamic Contour Tonometry:
This relatively modern method does not press the cornea, but rather measures the “normal pressure” between the measuring head and the cornea. The dynamic measuring device is equipped with a special pressure sensor for this.
- Impression tonometry:
With this somewhat older tonometry, a metal pin is brought into contact with the cornea when the patient is lying down. As with applanation tonometry, the effort required to dent the cornea to a certain depth provides information about the intraocular pressure.
- Transpalpebral scleral tonometry:
A tonometry that uses the recoil principle to determine the intraocular pressure via the eyelid. This avoids direct contact with the cornea.
- Ultrasound examination of the eyes (sonography):
For an ultrasound, the eye is lightly anesthetized beforehand by eye drops with local anesthetic effects. The doctor then gently applies some ultrasound gel to the eye before performing the sonographic examination with a special probe.
- Applanation tonometry:
In addition to these examination measures aimed at the eye, there are of course other diagnostic steps that focus on finding causes of the infarction that are external to the eye. Systemic diseases such as diabetes, but also vascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis can best be determined in this regard by taking blood and urine samples. The sugar, fat and cholesterol values of the secretion samples play an important role here. Suspected hypertension or heart disease may also require an EKG or blood pressure measurement.
Depending on the type of underlying disease, there are various treatment options for treating an eye infarction. Some underlying diseases can be treated well with medication, while others may even require eye surgery. In some cases, such as autoimmune diseases or genetic eye diseases, a complete cure is not yet possible. Therapy focuses here on the palliative medical care of the health complaint.
In the case of existing cardiovascular diseases, treating doctors will primarily try to restore adequate blood circulation to the eye with blood-thinning medication. For this purpose, drugs such as ASA or Marcumar are administered or the corresponding active ingredients are injected directly into the eye. Depending on the extent of the accompanying complications, such as edema or inflammation, anti-inflammatory and decongestant medications, such as cortisone, can also be used. Depending on the risk profile, the person concerned may have to take blood thinners for life and have the blood values checked regularly.
Eye infections are often due to infections. This can only be achieved with medication using antibiotic agents. In some diseases, accompanying symptoms may need to be cured with suitable medicines. Painkillers, itch-relieving eye drops or anti-bleeding medication may also be necessary.
Prevention through proper nutrition
If an eye infarction has already occurred, the affected person can usually do nothing with home remedies. However, there is a certain risk profile for eye infarctions, which can be prevented to a certain extent. This applies in particular to cardiovascular diseases, which are known to be very often based on an unhealthy lifestyle. In this context, eating habits play a major role. Dietary changes can therefore help prevent eye infarction.
In addition, a healthy diet also helps to alleviate the disease-related effects of heart and vascular diseases on the eye and to strengthen the eye through targeted nutrient intake. For example, a diet rich in vitamins C and E can positively influence the composition and flow properties of the blood. Fruit and vegetable types such as:
- Goji berries,
- Melons or
Speaking of berry fruits: Dark berries such as blueberries, blackberries, aronia and elderberries contain blue-coloring anthocyanins, which are known for their particularly protective and antioxidant effects! They are therefore not only good for the eye vessels, but also protect them from an increased risk of heart attack.
Important nutrients for the eye are also vitamin A, or carotene, and vitamin B. These are especially root, cabbage and leafy vegetables such as:
- Nettle tea or young nettle leaves in a salad,
- Lamb's lettuce,
- Swiss chard,
- Spinach or too
The use of healthy omega fats instead of harmful industrial fats has also helped many people with heart or vascular diseases. Examples of healthy fat sources are:
- Coconut oil,
- Linseed oil,
- Olive oil,
- Sesame oil and
- Pumpkin seed oil.
The right lifestyle
In addition to nutrition, many other everyday habits also play a role in avoiding and curing the various causes of an eye attack. First of all, the consumption of coffee and nicotine should be stopped here. Because both substances have a harmful effect on vascular health and are therefore involved in an increased risk of infarction.
In addition to nutrition, the health of the vessels can be supported by regular exercise and sufficient stays in the fresh air. In addition, sufferers who have already had an eye infarction or belong to a certain risk group due to illness should avoid stress and lack of sleep in everyday life. Prevention and therapy also depend on a healthy day and night rhythm.
Naturopathy also finds what they are looking for in therapy for eye infarction. The preparations can be used preventively for high-risk patients, but also as a therapy for those affected.
In the area of promoting blood circulation, medicinal plant therapy for eye infarction has two goals, similar to conventional medicine. On the one hand, this is to promote blood circulation in the vessels affected by reduced blood circulation. On the other hand, a reduction or, ideally, removal of plaque deposits in the blood vessels is intended. Medicinal plant number one on the list of natural means to promote blood circulation are ginkgo preparations. Sie haben neben ihrer durchblutungsfördernden beziehungsweise blutverdünnenden Wirkung auch einen positiven Effekt auf die Herzleistung und den Blutdruck, was gerade bei Herz- und Gefäßkrankheiten, die ihre Ursache in einem Infarkt haben, ganzheitliche Hilfe verspricht. Erhältlich sind Ginkgo Produkte dabei sowohl in der Drogerie als auch in der Apotheke. Rezeptverordnungen sind in den meisten Fällen nicht notwendig.
Auch grüner Tee soll mit Blick auf Plaqueablagerungen und Gefäßerkrankungen wie Arteriosklerose wahre Wunder bewirken. Zumindest kam eine chinesische Studie zu dem Ergebnis, dass die Teesorte positive Auswirkungen auf entsprechende Erkrankungen hat. Allgemein empfohlen sind für Patienten 3 bis 5 Tassen grüner Tee pro Tag oder bei Hochrisikopatienten auch bis zu 2 Liter täglich. Der Teeaufguss soll die Fließeigenschaften des Blutes in besonderem Maße positiv beeinflussen. Außerdem wirken die im Tee enthaltenen Antioxidantien den Gefäßablagerungen entgegen.
Tip: Wem zwei Liter Tee pro Tag zu viel sind, der kann zur vereinfachten Einnahme auch auf Kapseln aus Grüntee-Extrakt zurückgreifen.
Gute Erfolge im Bereich der Durchblutungsförderung bringt auch das Kombinationspräparat Vertigoheel. Hier sind 4 verschiedene Substanzen in niedrigen bis mittleren Potenzen gemischt worden, die unter anderem gegen Schwindel, Gefäßablagerungen und „dickes Blut“ wirken. Dabei sei jedoch erwähnt, dass die Einnahme blutverdünnender Naturpräparate nur nach Absprache mit dem behandelnden Arzt erfolgen sollte. Auch eine ärztliche Beobachtung während der Einnahme der Naturmittel ist wichtig, da es bei unsachgemäßer Handhabe schnell zu Wechselwirkungen oder Überdosierungen kommen kann.
Es gibt noch eine Reihe weiterer Heilpflanzen, die bei Augenbeschwerden standardmäßig zur Anwendung kommen. Zu nennen wäre hier zum Beispiel Mahonie, eine bläuliche Frucht, die neben heilsamen Kräften für das Auge, eine extra Portion Vitamin C enthält. Gut bekannt ist außerdem der Augentrost, welcher seinen Namen unverkennbar seiner Heilwirkung auf das Auge verdankt. Ebenso soll Ackerhellerkraut eine besondere Wirkung auf erkrankte Augen haben.
Krankheiten bei Augeninfarkt: Arterienverkalkung (Arterioskleorse), koronare Herzkrankheit, Blutgerinnsel (Trombose), Blutgerinnungsstörungen, Bluthochdruck, Blutmangel, Bluterguss, Augenvenenthrombose, Herzschwäche (Herzinsuffizienz), Herzfehler, Herzrhythmusstörungen, Vorhofflimmern, Augentumor, Vaskulitis, Diabetes mellitus, Glaskörperblutung, Maculadegeneration, Hyphaema, Regenbogenhautentzündung, Bindehautentzündung, Hornhautentzündung, Lederhautentzündung, Netzhautentzündung, Sehnerventzündung, Grauer Star, Grüner Star, Glaskörperabhebung. (ma)
Author and source information
This text corresponds to the specifications of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical doctors.
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- Gerste, Ronald D.: Sehnervenerkrankung: Risikofaktoren für nichtarteriitische Optikusneuropathie identifiziert, Dtsch Arztebl, 2017, aerzteblatt.de
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- Lang , Gerhard K.: Augenheilkunde, Thieme, 6. Auflage, 2019
- UpToDate, Inc.: Optic neuropathies (Abruf: 10.07.2019), uptodate.com
- American Academy of Ophthalmology: What Is Ischemic Optic Neuropathy? (Abruf: 10.07.2019), aao.org
- Cleveland Clinic: Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (Abruf: 10.07.2019), my.clevelandclinic.org
ICD-Codes für diese Krankheit:H47ICD-Codes sind international gültige Verschlüsselungen für medizinische Diagnosen. You can find e.g. in doctor's letters or on disability certificates.